As of February 2009, 181 states have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, aimed at combating global warming.
Signed and ratified[edit | edit source]
- Niue and Cook Islands are counted separately. These are self-governing islands, but are not independent from New Zealand.
- In addition to its member states, the European Union is counted as a party to the Protocol.
Note: Signing is optional, indicating an intention to ratify the Protocol. Ratification means that an Annex I party (e.g. a developed country or one with an 'economy in transition') has agreed to cap emissions in accordance with the Protocol. 37 of the 39 Annex I parties have agreed to cap their emissions in this way, two others are required to do so under their conditions of accession into the EU, and one more intends to become an Annex I party.